Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Holding New Holland Accountable

Animals' Angels

Shocking Abuse Uncovered

Imagine walking into a sale barn to see a horse lying on the floor with a bloated stomach and its head tied tightly to a feed trough. Imagine it was so incapacitated that it didn't even stand up or protect itself when auction visitors kick it as they walk by. Then imagine that next to this horse were other horses in equal or worse condition. This is exactly what investigators for  Animals' Angels found when they attended recent sales at New Holland Auction in Pennsylvania. What they witnessed was outrageous and shocking. Throughout the holding pens were horses with swollen limbs, festering skin abrasions, devastating pelvic injuries, horses so emaciated it looked as though the poor things hadn't eaten in weeks, and babies sold with debilitating septic joint infections.

Sadly this is not the first time we have seen horses in such pitiful conditions at this sale.  And if an injured horse seems to be receiving too much attention by visitors, it is simply removed to a dark, out of the way part of the barn by auction personnel, away from prying eyes.


On February 16, 2015, our investigators found piles of dead goats and sheep. Next to one of the "dead piles," was a sheep on the verge of death, left to die in the subzero temperatures. Sadly, our volunteers quickly realized the sheep was not alone in her tragic end.  A goat had also been thrown away.

He was unable to get up because something was very wrong with his legs.  This is the fate of animals that can't be sold at New Holland. They are tossed on to the "dead pile" like trash and forgotten while they slowly wither away and die, their last hours spent suffering and in pain.

Unfortunately, what the investigators observed is by far no isolated incident. In 2007, the auction was convicted of animal cruelty based on evidence provided by AA for almost the exact same crimes. Animals were ignored, left for dead, and quickly forgotten. All is not lost however! The auction was convicted and can be again! 

We were outraged then and we are just as outraged now at how cruel some humans can be to their fellow living creatures. Heartbroken, but determined to end their misery, our investigators intervened on behalf of the poor goat and sheep left suffering and barely alive in the frigid temps.  We contacted the local police to step in and to euthanize the languishing animals.

It is time to hold New Holland Auction accountable for the poor treatment of the animals in their care. Cruelty charges have been filed. Animals' Angels investigators will gladly take the stand as witnesses in the trial scheduled against the New Holland Auction on April 29th. We're gratified that our work in the field and willingness to testify will help obtain justice for these animals.

We will keep you advised on the outcome of the court case and once the legalities have concluded, we will release our full report on this investigation.   


Will YOU be there for the Animals?

As shown by the New Holland Auction and many others, our investigations are a much needed resource to not only spread awareness, but to garner justice for the animals. However, we cannot do it without you!


As you know, horses and livestock around the country are continually subjected to horrific treatment at the hands of heartless human beings who only see them as expendable products sold for profit. Their lives are cruelly exploited for money without any consideration for their health and well-being which leads to immense suffering. These individuals, these businesses, do not care what is in the best interest of the animals; they care only for the best interest of their wallets.     


Animals' Angels formed with the idea of fighting against these injustices. But no matter how hard we fight, we need your help to succeed!  Cruelty to animals is something that is typically hidden from view.  Nowhere is this more  evident than with farm animals and slaughter-bound horses. Without pictures and documentation to tell the animals' story, they would undoubtedly suffer even more at the hands of such people. The more we bring these atrocities to light and out into the open the less the violators can hide.

Our biggest goal at Animals' Angels is to be out in the field investigating auctions, slaughter plants, feedlots, and livestock trucks as much as possible. The shocking results from our investigations have proven over and over again to spur positive change -- but we need your support to continue these projects!  Not only do we need you, the animals need you!  Even operating on our shoe-string budget,  investigations are costly ventures to undertake. But they are absolutely imperative if we want to help our fellow animals.

I hope we can rely on your help and support. Your generous donation would allow us to be in the field with the animals, to help comfort them, to tell their stories, and to ensure that those responsible for their suffering are held accountable.


Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Carson City Range Management Plan – a Disaster for Our Wild Ones

Straight from the Horse's Heart

When livestock are absent, the water is turned off 

Private welfare cattle destroying water trough on public land
Private welfare cattle destroying water trough on public land

This Range Management Plan (RMP) will make decisions on at least 1,235,200 wild horse and burro legal acres in western Nevada and includes intensive “management” on 21 HMA/HAs, including:
  • Augusta Mountains HA/HMA
  • Clan Alpine HA/HMA
  • Desatoya Mountains HA/HMA
  • Dogskin Mountains HA/HMA
  • Flanigan HA/HMA HA/HMA
  • Garfield Flat HA/HMA
  • Granite Peak HA/HMA
  • Fort Sage HA/HMA
  • Horse Mountain HA/HMA
  • Horse Springs HA
  • Lahontan HA/HMA
  • Marietta HA/HMA
  • Montgomery Pass HA/HMA
  • New Pass HA/HMA
  • North Stillwater HA/HMA
  • Pilot Mountain HA/HMA
  • Pine Nut HA/HMA
  • South Stillwater HA/HMA
  • Tule Ridge and Mahogany Flat HA/HMA
  • Pah Rah Mountain HA
  • Wassuk HA/HMA
Public comment is due two weeks from today but just as a warning … this is a GIGANTIC amount of information to research and cover! I am just getting started, but it appears that there are 5 alternatives and NONE of them are good.
Alternative “A” so far seems to be the best but it is NOT good either. Alternative “A” supports continual capture/removals and extensive contraception and IMO we have to fight that because voting for the least of the evils is a lose-lose for everyone and especially our wild ones.
The other alternatives promote reduction in HMAs and reduction in WH&B land and non-reproducing herds and on and on – all real bad.
One thing I wanted to bring to our attention is this statement from the EIS:
“Granite Peak HMA is north of Reno, Nevada, and west of the Dogskin Mountains HMA. The HMA consists of rolling terrain. There is no permanent water within the HMA. When livestock are present and their associated water troughs are supplied with water, wild horses will use the water troughs. When livestock are absent, the water is turned off at the troughs and wild horses use water sources outside of the HMA.”
Private welfare sheep abound on public land
Private welfare sheep abound on public land

We saw this exact thing last summer on the Twin Peaks HMA and I think we all know this is a common practice and has caused numerous wild ones to either die from dehydration or be removed (how many “emergency drought” removals have there been over the years!). These are/were natural springs that have been captured via man-made devices for livestock … period. These are the same springs that would have originally allowed the natural populations to survive and thrive for hundreds if not thousands of years. This, in addition to removal of their legal herd area land and overgrazing by domestic livestock etc., has been and continues to be and will be the death of our wild ones in the wild. If this isn’t “managing for extinction” then I don’t know what is!
Please do the best that you can to review the Carson City RMP and just concentrate on the parts that you understand the best and have the most concern about – and then make your public comment by Monday, April 27th. We must speak for our wild horses and burros … and they will thank us by just being themselves and that is what we all want more than anything.
PS Since I have just barely scratched the surface of this EIS, I am hoping that others will share what they are seeing and researching and learning so that we can all do our best to save our wild horses and burros and their legal habitat. No time to waste!

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

Havasupai Falls Update

Over the years, MANY of you have had concern about the conditions of the horses at Havasupai Falls. There never seemed to be an easy answer especially since it is federal, not state land.

I'm happy to report that Wildhorse Ranch Rescue has intervened.

"As of October 2014, we began taking horses and mules in need out of the Havasupai Falls area. When they get to our ranch, they need:
  • Medical Care and Xrays
  • Dental work
  • a very carefully selected diet
  • Their feet trimmed
  • Rehabilitation
  • Grooming and lots of love"

See their post here. (Click here.)

Saturday, April 4, 2015

Sunshine Laws and BLM’s news release on the upcoming National Wild Horse & Burro Advisory Board meeting

Straight from the Horse's Heart

A BLM “News Release” is below.  There will be a live stream of this meeting, and we will post the link so you can listen.  I’d like to call your attention to the last sentence of the news release:  “In Fiscal Year 2013, the BLM generated $4.7 billion in receipts from public lands.”  I wonder how much the BLM got from selling off our public lands in 2014.
And just a quick reminder, there are both state and Federal government transparency “Sunshine Laws.”  You can read the text of the U.S. Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C. 552b)  HERE.   The subject matter (agenda) must be made available for the public ahead of the meeting.  You are allowed to audio and video record meetings.   If meetings are “closed” to the public, you can obtain transcripts of the closed meetings.  Also check the state laws where the meeting is taking place, because they will also specify what you can do (like carry big signs into the meeting room).  If you are unable to drive to your local BLM Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) and subcommittee meetings, call the BLM and ask them to use a cell phone so you can listen and comment during the public comment time.
“The open meeting requirement of the Act mandates that, except as provided in the Act’s 10 exemptions, “every portion of every meeting of an agency shall be open to public observation.”
Release Date: 03/23/15
Contacts:Tom Gorey, 202-912-7420

BLM Sets Meeting of National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board for April 22-23 in Columbus, Ohio

The Bureau of Land Management’s National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will meet on April 22-23 in Columbus, Ohio, to discuss issues relating to the management and protection of wild horses and burros on Western public rangelands. The two-day meeting will take place on Wednesday, April 22, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., and Thursday, April 23, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. (The meeting times are local time; Columbus is in the Eastern Time Zone.)
The upcoming Advisory Board meeting will be held at the Hyatt Regency Columbus, 350 N. High Street, Columbus, Ohio 43215; phone number: 614-463-1234. The meeting will be live-streamed (at  The agenda of the meeting can be found in the March 23, 2015, Federal Register (at
The Advisory Board provides input and advice to the BLM as it carries out its responsibilities under the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act. The law mandates the protection and management of these free-roaming animals in a manner that ensures healthy herds at levels consistent with the land’s capacity to support them.  According to the BLM’s latest official estimate, approximately 49,200 wild horses and burros roam on BLM-managed rangelands in 10 Western states.
The public may address the Advisory Board on Wednesday, April 22, from 3 p.m. to 4:30 p.m., local time. Individuals who want to make a statement at Wednesday’s meeting should register in person with the BLM by 2 p.m., local time, on that same day at the meeting site.  Depending on the number of speakers, the Board may limit the length of presentations, set at three minutes for previous meetings.
Speakers should submit a written copy of their statement to the BLM at the addresses below or bring a copy to the meeting.  There may be a Webcam present during the entire meeting and individual comments may be recorded.  Those who would like to comment but are unable to attend may submit a written statement to: National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260, Attention: Ramona DeLorme, 1340 Financial Boulevard, Reno, Nevada, 89502-7147. Comments may also be e-mailed to the BLM (; please include “Advisory Board Comment” in the subject line of the e-mail.
For additional information regarding the meeting, please contact Ms. DeLorme, Wild Horse and Burro Administrative Assistant, at 775-861-6583.  Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may reach Ms. DeLorme during normal business hours by calling the Federal Information Relay Service at 1-800-877-8339.
The Advisory Board generally meets twice a year and the BLM Director may call additional meetings when necessary.  Members serve without salary, but are reimbursed for travel and per diem expenses according to government travel regulations.
In its management of wild horses and burros under the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act, the BLM is implementing recommendations made by a June 2013 report of the National Academy of Sciences. For instance, the BLM is taking actions to increase the use of population growth-suppression measures on overpopulated herds roaming Western public rangelands and implementing methods developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for more accurate population estimates.
The BLM manages more than 245 million acres of public land, the most of any Federal agency. This land, known as the National System of Public Lands, is primarily located in 12 Western states, including Alaska. The BLM also administers 700 million acres of sub-surface mineral estate throughout the nation. The BLM’s mission is to manage and conserve the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations under our mandate of multiple-use and sustained yield. In Fiscal Year 2013, the BLM generated $4.7 billion in receipts from public lands.

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Urge Congress to Pass the Horse Transportation Safety Act to Halt Cruel Transport Method

Animal Welfare Institute

Thursday, March 26, 2015
Urge Congress to Pass the Horse Transportation Safety Act to Halt Cruel Transport Method - Photo from Flickr by Lindsey Turner
Dear Humanitarian,
The Horse Transportation Safety Act (H.R. 1282/S. 850), has been reintroduced in the House of Representatives by Congressmen Steve Cohen (D-TN) and Ed Whitfield (R-KY) and in the Senate by Senators Mark Kirk (R-IL) and Bob Menendez (D-NJ). The Horse Transportation Safety Act amends Title 49, United States Code, to prohibit the transportation of horses in interstate commerce in a motor vehicle containing two or more levels stacked on top of one another (commonly known as "double-deck trailers.")
"When we allow animals to be mistreated or disrespected, we also devalue our own humanity," said Congressman Cohen. "Horses cannot be safely or humanely transported in double-deck trailers that are built for much smaller animals, and our laws should reflect that. I am proud to sponsor the Horse Transportation Safety Act, which will ensure that these beautiful creatures are treated humanely."
Hauling horses in double-deck trailers is dangerous and inhumane. These trailers do not provide sufficient headroom for horses to stand upright. As a result, they often endure long journeys in cramped positions and suffer serious injuries. There have also been several horrific traffic accidents involving these trailers, resulting in severe injuries and brutal deaths of many horses.
According to the US Department of Agriculture, "double-deck trailers do not provide adequate headroom for equines, with the possible exception of foals and yearlings. We do not believe that trailers that have two or more permanent levels that are not collapsible can be adequately altered to accommodate adult equines, especially tall equines."
What You Can Do:
Please contact your representative and both senators and ask them to support and cosponsor H.R. 1282/S. 850, the Horse Transportation Safety Act, to prevent the use of double-deck trailers for hauling any horse.
You can send an email to your legislators through AWI's Compassion Index by clicking here.
Contact Your Legislators - Urge Congress to Pass the Horse Transportation Safety Act to Halt Cruel Transport Method
Please be sure to share our “Dear Humanitarian” eAlert with family, friends and co-workers, and encourage them to contact their senators and representative, too. As always, thank you very much for your help!
Chris Heyde
Deputy Director
Government and Legal Affairs
P.S. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter for updates on the action above and other important animal protection news.

Wednesday, March 18, 2015

BLM to Hold Scoping Meetings on Fate of Near Extinct Wild Burros

Straight from the Horse's Heart

“Attention all wild horse and burro advocates; our disappearing wild burros need your voice at an upcoming BLM scoping meeting to be held April 1-2. If you can arrange to attend please do so and speak on their behalf. Thanks, in advance, for your dedication and commitment…keep the faith.” ~ R.T.

The information below supplied by “The Daily Miner
Wild Burros in BLM holding ~ photo by Terry Fitch of Wild Horse Freedom Federation
Wild Burros in BLM holding ~ photo by Terry Fitch ofWild Horse Freedom Federation
KINGMAN – How the Bureau of Land Management manages burros will be the topic of discussion when a pair of scoping meetings are held in Mohave County April 1-2.
The bureau will focus on the management of wild burros in the Black Mountain Herd Management Area, located about 15 miles west of Kingman. The area parallels the eastern bank of the Colorado River for 80 miles, from Hoover Dam south to the Needles Bridge on the Arizona-California border.
The first meeting takes place in Bullhead City from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. April 1 and the second will take place from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. April 2 at the BLM Kingman field office, 2755 Mission Boulevard off of Hualapai Mountain Road.
The first half hour features poster presentations for viewing. The formal presentation begins at 6:30 p.m. and the following topics will be discussed:
• The current population estimate
• Vegetation utilization data
• Fertility control
• The appropriate management level
• Burros outside of the herd management area
Attendees can comment on issues, data and any other concerns following the presentation.
For more information, contact BLM Wild Horse and Burro Specialist Chad Benson at (928) 718-3750.

Friday, March 13, 2015

Update on Stallions shipped to Dennis Chavez 2/03/15

Animals' Angels

Tuesday, February 3, 2015 - 17:45
Investigation Category: 

A follow up investigation conducted by Animals' Angels has confirmed that the 224 stallions and 64 mares shipped by Ole Olson to Dennis Chavez on January 15th were indeed Dann Sister horses.  In fact, Brand Inspection Certificateswere signed by Frank R. Dann on behalf of the Estate of Mary Dann.
We were able to determine that the horses were shipped by Montoya Trucking, a company Dennis Chavez uses for his slaughter transports to Presidio and Santa Teresa. Montoya uses single deck trailers with very small holes in the sides which make it difficult to see the condition of the animals inside the trailer or to check on their well-being.  Several of these trailers also have open roofs, exposing the animals to the harsh elements.  The paperwork suggests that the horses were shipped in groups of 32 horses which leads us back to the question of how they could have possibly segregated the stallions as required by law.  
As you may recall when we first reported this situation, we stated that we had contacted the USDA to file a formal complaint regarding the transport of these stallions and to urge IES to look into the true purpose behind their shipment.  We provided them with this additional information and have since heard back from them with positive news.  IES/USDA has advised that their office has launched a full investigation into this matter.  We will keep you informed of new developments as they become available. 
The question of what Chavez has planned for the horses found something of an answer as well: the horses are to be gelded once he receives them.  According to the paperwork AA obtained from the New Mexico Livestock Board, the stallions were not to be used for commercial breeding and were scheduled to be gelded upon arrival at Chavez’ location. As mentioned in our original report, Chavez’ gelding techniques are questionable at best and is just one more torturous ordeal for these poor horses to endure.  And sadly, with Chavez in possession of these horses, there are few options open for their future. 
Even worse, our investigation revealed that several additional shipments of the iconic Dann Sister herd were also sent off to Dennis Chavez via Ole Olson – another 128 stallions, but also mares, geldings, and a large group of Quarter Horses, all with Brand Inspection Certificates signed off by Frank R. Dann on behalf of the Mary Dann Estate. 

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Investigation: Horse slaughter and rampant violations continue despite EU ban on Mexican horse meat

Equine Welfare Alliance

March 9, 2015



John Holland

R.T. Fitch, President Wild Horse Freedom Federation

Investigation: Horse slaughter and rampant violations continue despite EU ban on Mexican horse meat

Chicago (EWA) - Equine Welfare Alliance and Wild Horse Freedom Federation today released thesecond part of a two month investigation into the Mexican horse meat trade following a ban imposed on the meat by the European Union (EU). The ban that became effective January, 15
th, was imposed following Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) audits that found the meat unsafe for human consumption due to drug residues.

As if to emphasize the need for the EU ban, tests on Mexican horse meat found Ractophine
on January 14 th , then  Isoxsuprine hydrochloride and Zilpaterol hydrochloride a few days later.

The two part investigation consisted of observation of the Eagle Pass border crossing in Texas where many horses are exported to slaughter in Mexico, and an exhaustive search of US, Mexican, EU and international trade records.

Before the ban, 87% of the horses slaughtered in four EU approved plants in Mexico (105,406 in 2014) came from the US, and 78% of the meat from those horses was exported to the EU. Given these numbers, the flow of US horses to slaughter in Mexico was expected to dwindle after the deadline.

The investigators at the export pens found and reported multiple violations of the Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter regulations [9CFR88]. Specifically, violations of the mandatory 6 hour offload rest period for the horses were noted. The investigators also observed one violation of a rejected blind horse, and they filmed a donkey being trampled in the back of a livestock trailer as it departed the pens.

The APHIS inspector, who is responsible for enforcing compliance with 9CFR88 was filmed arriving at the Eagle Pass pens in a vehicle registered to El Retiro Livestock, a registered owner-shipper, over whom the inspector should have been exercising compliance authority.

Analysis of the data collected indicated that the four European multi-national corporations that control the plants were able to juggle their shipments so that their plants in other countries, which were still EU approved, picked up the EU trade while the Mexican plants took over their former accounts.

While the exports of horse meat from Mexico to the EU were largely curtailed after the deadline, EWA investigators detected two shipments of horse meat to the EU that were shipped after the January 15th deadline. The shipments were reported to pertinent EU authorities but no explanation was received to date.

While the report did not find an immediate reduction in horses going to Mexico, it did find the trade will likely be disrupted to some extent. Virtually all of the countries now supplying the lucrative EU market have also received unfavorable FVO audits, and face possible banning themselves.

Russia, a significant past customer for Mexican horse meat had itself banned the meat for a year ending in August of 2014 due to drug residues. Russia was expected to be a significant alternative market after its ban expired, but the devaluation of the Russian ruble appears to have derailed that alternative.

The most recently released data portionof the report contains a detailed history of all Mexican horse meat exports over past years, as well as an analysis of market shares. The report predicts a 30% to 50% decrease in US horses going to Mexico in the coming year.

Given the rampant violations found in the investigation, more frequent monitoring is planned for the future.


The Equine Welfare Alliance (EWA) is a dues-free 501c4, umbrella organization with over 330 member organizations, the Southern Cherokee Government and over 1,150 individual members worldwide in 23 countries. The organization focuses its efforts on the welfare of all equines and the preservation of wild equids. 

Wild Horse Freedom Federation (WHFF) is a registered, Texas non-profit corporation with federal 501(c)3 status. WHFF puts people between America's wild equids and extinction through targeted litigation against governmental agencies whose documented agendas include the eradication of wild horse and burros from public, federal and state  lands.

Friday, March 6, 2015

The Terrible Truth About Wild Horse and Burro “Bait Trapping”

Straight from the Horse's Heart

Bait Trapped
by Grandma Gregg
First, I want you to take a close look at the photo above of wild horses that were trapped by a BLM hired and approved bait trapping contractor, so that you will be aware that the so called “safe and humane” bait trapping method is not safe and is not humane.  This photo is from Freedom of Information (FOIA) data.  These horses were obviously seriously injured and likely were euthanized by BLM due to their critical eye injuries.
Cruelty to animals, also called animal abuse, is defined as the human infliction of suffering or harm upon non-human animals, for purposes other than self-defense or survival.
Through FOIA data, I discovered that during a 15 month period of wild horse and burro bait/water trapping (October 2012 through December 2013), 634 wild horses and burros were bait/water trapped, and within that same 15 month period, 56 of those were reported as dead.
Unlike the BLM’s usual “injuries and death are not frequent and usually average less than 0.5% to 1.0% [one percent or less] of the total animals captured” propaganda, we can see in actuality these figures prove a 9% (NINE percent, rounded) death rate due to capture by bait/water trapping, by BLM hired and approved contractors.
And, that 9% does not even include the unknown deaths that occurred for these wild horses and burros after that 15 month bait/water trapping period.
How many of these wild horses and burros that were reported as “dead” could actually have been driven “out the back door” and down the slaughter pipeline?  Either way, they are dead.
To assist us with knowledge about bait trapping verses helicopter capture, I am providing my responses to a National Mustang Association/Colorado bait trapping proposal.  (National Mustang Association comments are in bold italics below.)
National Mustang Association (NMA): Why is bait trapping a desirable alternative to helicopter roundups?
  • Far more cost-effective
My response:  I realize that using an in-house (BLM employees) bait trapping process could be more cost effective than using private contractors, but most bait trapping is done by BLM hired private contractors who have proven their disregard for wild horses and burros?  This makes a huge difference.
  • Easier for the horses
My response:  Although I realize that in-house (BLM, with continual public observation) bait trapping would likely be safer for the horses themselves, this is not the norm for the BLM’s current private contractor bait trapping contracts, which clearly state that hot-shots are acceptable (if not used on the head or anus or genitals of the animal) and clearly states that no public observation is allowed.
Since anyone who has researched the BLM’s for-hire contractor documentation of animal abuse knows, even when public observers have been allowed in sight of the capture area, the animal abuse was evident; so how can anyone believe that without constant public observation, that the private contractor is giving safe and humane treatment to the wild horses?  We cannot – and the facts and photos show us the real truth.
  •  Better publicity for BLM   
My response:  BLM’s public image is a NON issue – the entire issue is the 1971 WH&B law that clearly states, “wild free-roaming horses and burros shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death” and entitled to roam free on public lands where they were living at the time the Act was passed in 1971.  The protection of the wild horses and burros is the only issue – the BLM’s persona has nothing at all to do with the law and procedures to protect the wild horses and burros.
The above information is only a fragment of the wild horse and burro bait trapping story, but it needed to be shared.  I wish to add here that I am not, and never will be, in favor of helicopter roundups – they have a long history of animal stress and abuse and deaths – but the public needs to be aware that the bait trapping method is also not acceptable to the American people, who own and care about our wild horses and burros.
More information: